I've been meaning to write this up for some time, ever since I did the SU Performance Tuning 101 a few months
ago. This one is more like Basic SU Adjustment for Happy Driving.
The trick to tuning SU carbs is to understand that there are two things you need to get right: the air flow,
and the fuel mixture. While they are interconnected, they are also independent, and need to be measured and adjusted independently.
You will probably need to arrange to buy or borrow a Unisyn flow meter. The Unisyn is the usual gauge for
getting the air flow balanced between the two carbs. This costs about $20 and is simple to use. It consists of an adjustable
opening (same size circumference, but with a disc on a threaded rod that you can screw tighter or looser) that you use to
set the level of a little float that rises or falls in a glass tube at the side of the gauge.
For the fuel mixture, I have become sold on a device called the Gunson ColorTune (maybe ColourTune, as it's
a British co.). This is a spark plug with a crystal 'pressure and heat-resistant' window in it that lets you see into the
combustion chamber while the motor is running. The color of the flame indicates the mixture richness. It costs about $40,
and while it's not absolutely essential, it makes life so much easier that it's worth the cost.
If you don't have a Gunson, I've included the standard directions here for determining correct mixture (step
4 of the Adjusting Mixture procedure).
To tune SU carbs, first locate the following components:
- Throttle linkage nuts. These are the things that connect the throttle linkage (the bar connected to your
foot through whatever means your car uses, cables or rods) to the carburetors' throttle levers.
- Throttle stop screws. These set the idle speed for each carb, and are located typically behind the dashpot,
on the same side of the carb to which the throttle linkage connects.
- Mixture adjusting nut. This is the lower of the two nuts at the very bottom of the carburetor. Later SU carburetors
of the HIF type have integral float chambers, on which the mixture is adjusted by turning a screw. You'll need to experiment
(and I explain how) to see which way makes this richer and which way makes it leaner.
- Lifting pins. These are little wobbly metal pins under the dashpot. When you push up on the pin, it raises
the piston in the dashpot. Find these; they're crucial if you don't have a Colortune. If you don't have or can't find them,
you can raise the piston with a flat-bladed screwdriver pushed down the throat of the carb and twisted to lift it.
- The bridge. This is the part inside the carburetor, where the gas jet opens into the airstream. You'll see
a needle inside the jet, and the jet itself should be a few fractions of an inch down from the bridge itself. The jet is the
brass tube that sits in the center of the bridge, with a tapered needle poking down into it.
- The choke linkage nuts. Comparable to the throttle linkage nuts (and usually the same size), but on the linkage
that goes between the choke cable and the mixture adjustment mechanism. They make sure that both carbs are enriched when you
pull on the choke.
Balancing The Air Flow:
1. Start with the engine warmed up to operating temperature and perform your standard ignition tune-up (points
gap, timing, spark plug gap, new condenser, etc.) first. If you've got a timing light and a dwell meter, you can verify all
that stuff independent of the way the car is running. When it's warm, shut the motor off and remove the air filters.
2. Begin by balancing the air flow. To do this, first loosen the throttle linkage nuts. Leave them connected,
just loosen them half a turn or so.
3. Back out the throttle stop screws till you can see that they are just touching the throttle stop. Then
open each carburetor (that is, lower the throttle stop screw) 1-1/2 turns of the throttle stop screw and start the engine.
It will probably idle at about 2000 RPM; don't worry.
4. Put the Unisyn over either carb and adjust the orifice in the Unisyn till the little float at the side
rests at the middle of its graduated tube. (Pre-diagnostics: if the idle drops and the car wants to die when you slap on the
Unisyn, the carb is too rich; if the idle soars upwards, it's too lean.) Hold the Unisyn over the carb for only long enough
to see the level of the float, then remove it.
5. Place the Unisyn on each carburetor in turn to check its flow, adjusting the throttle stop screws until
both carburetors register the same position on the graduated tube of the Unisyn. (The float will probably move either up or
down in the tube, which is why you want to center it in Step 4.) When both carburetors flow the same amount of air, tighten
the throttle linkage nuts, adjusting for the amount of free-play between the linkage and the throttle stops that your manual
calls for (probably about 0.006"). Your goal should be to achieve the lowest possible idle with both carbs balanced and the
engine running smoothly. (Note that the idle speed will very probably rise as you get the mixture correct.)
If you've taken more than five minutes to do this, rev the engine to over 2500 RPM (assuming the idle isn't
already that high) for thirty seconds or so to clear the spark plugs. Then adjust the mixture.
Adjusting The Mixture:
Note: in the following procedure, one "flat" is the basic increment of adjustment, and refers to 1/6 of a
turn of the mixture adjusting nut. This corresponds to the flat faces on the nut.
I'm going to give instructions for SUs with the separate float chambers. If you have the HIF integral-float
carbs, you'll have to look in a manual to see whether you turn the mixture screw to the right or the left to make it richer
or leaner; I've done that once but I can't remember. Alternatively, you can -- with the motor shut off -- peer down the throat
of the carb and turn the mixture screw while watching the top of the jet. Remember that moving the top of the jet up will
lean out that carb, while moving the top of the jet down will richen it.
1. Shut the car off and loosen the choke linkage nuts.
2. Adjust the mixture nuts (screws) fully lean.
For separate float-chamber cars, this means raising the mixture nut all the way up against the bottom of the
carb (or rather, against the spring). For HIF carbs, you can try turning the screw while looking down the throat to see which
way the jet is moving. In either case, the idea is to zero out the jet: raise it all the way up in the bridge.
3. Now drop the jet an equal amount -- two full turns for HS-type carbs, two full turns (I believe) for HIFs.
Then start the car.
Note: In the following step, you might want to consider adjusting the carburetors one-half a flat too lean,
as the mixture will be enriched when you put the air filters (which restrict air flow) on at the end of the tuning process.
4. Raise the lifting pin (or use a screwdriver if you don't have the pins) so that the piston rises no more
than 1/16". Listen to the engine's exhaust note and compare it to the following conditions:
- If the exhaust note rises and stays high till you drop the piston, this carburetor is adjusted too rich.
Turn the mixture nut one flat (one-sixth of a turn) up, moving the jet toward the bridge, then repeat Step 4.
- If the exhaust note falls and the car sounds as though it is going to stall, this carburetor is adjusted
too lean. Turn the mixture nut one flat (one-sixth of a turn) down, moving the jet away from the bridge, then repeat Step
- If the exhaust note rises briefly and then settles back down to something like the original RPM level, this
carburetor is set correctly. When you have achieved this setting for both carburetors, continue with Step 5.
5. Tighten the choke linkage nuts so that the choke cable will pull an equal amount on both mixture nuts
when you pull the knob.
6. At this time, I find I usually have to adjust the idle again because getting the fuel mixture right usually
changes the idle speed. Since you know you have the throttles synchronized, I normally just adjust the idle without loosening
the throttle linkage. The easiest way is to screw one of the screws out till it doesnt' even touch the throttle stop, then
use the other to get the idle speed right. When that's done, you can screw the other stop screw down till it just touches
the stop on that carb and you're set.
7. Replace the air filters and go for a test drive!
SU carburetors are most fuel-efficient when slightly lean, and provide the most power when they are slightly
rich. You can use this knowledge to provide a certain amount of tuning for the kind of driving you do. If you learn to read
spark plugs, you can get a basic idea of what your engine's condition is and make fine adjustments to the mixture nuts accordingly.
If you have a ColorTune, you simply install it in place of one of the plugs, then adjust the carburetor that
feeds that cylinder (the front carburetor for 1 & 2, the rear for 3 & 4). The ColorTune will let you see the color
of the flame. White flashes mean too lean; yellow flame means too rich. Blue (like a Bunsen burner) is correct, and blue with
a faint orangish tinge is the best for power.
You can also modify your car's throttle response characteristics slightly by adjusting the viscosity of the
oil in the dashpot damper. SUs are set up so that a thicker oil will resist the piston's attempt to rise in the dashpot for
just long enough that the engine's increased load (when the throttle is opened) will pull more fuel across the bridge; this
enriches the mixture and temporarily bumps power up to help the engine achieve higher speed more readily.
If you modify your engine, you will probably need to modify your needles, as it is the needle profile that
determines the mixture curve for different air-fuel loads.
If you experience uneven idle, hunting, or an idle that changes (rises or falls) as the engine's temperature
climbs or drops, you probably have vacuum leaks. The most serious fault on most old SUs is wear in the throttle shaft area.
To test for this, spray some carburetor cleaner on the outside of the throttle shaft; carburetor cleaner is non-combustible,
and if the engine speed drops, it means some of this is getting into the air stream from outside the carburetor. You may also
have leaks from the manifolds, from tubing such as the vacuum advance line to the distributor (if fitted), or from other places;
the carb cleaner trick works well for locating those leaks as well.
Other problems that SU carbs experience involve dirt in the dashpot and occasionally in the float chamber.
The dashpot is a precision piece of machining that involves very close tolerances so that the piston doesn't stick or bind
when it rises and falls. A little grit between the piston and the dashpot can make the car jerk and sputter. Take the dashpot
off, wipe the insides down with carb cleaner and a lint-free, clean rag, then reinstall it, getting the screws down tight.
Also, don't swap the pistons between dashpots; they're matched to one another so that the clearance between the piston and
the wall of the dashpot makes a tight seal but permits easy rising and falling.
Dirt in the float bowl basically shuts off that carburetor (or can make it flood open, depending on whether
the dirt is wedging the valve open or closed). You can try rapping on the float bowl with the handle of a screwdriver, but
your best bet is to take the cover off, clean out the valve fittings, and reinstall everything, with a new fuel filter for
Some older SU models also have adjustable floats, in which you need to set the float height (which basically
equals the fuel level in the float chamber) by bending a brass rod. These carburetors were replaced in the mid-1960s with
carburetors that had fixed, plastic floats which are basically trouble-free unless abused. The stop at the back of the floats
can break if they are installed badly, and the brass pin that holds them in place can wear an oval hole in the float pivot.
New floats are fairly inexpensive and aren't a bad idea if you're doing a rebuild.
Grose-Jets are very popular with some people and a big pain for others. It appears -- and this is just conjecture
-- that Grose-Jets work best in cars with adjustable floats, as they are longer than the stock SU float valves. The standard
failure for Grose-Jets is to flood the carburetor. I have never had problems with the stock SU float valves or floats.